An uncontrolled cell division in testicles or testes results in testicular cancer. Although rare cancer, it still is observed in men between 15-45 years.
Types of Testicular Cancer
Depending on the growth rate, testicular cancers are of the following types:
- Seminoma: This is a common type of testicular cancer which is slow-growing and it is responsive to therapies.
- Non-seminoma: This is a rare and fast-growing cancer which is unresponsive to therapies.
The common symptoms of testicular cancer are:
- Heaviness in the scrotum.
- Lump in the testes.
- Swelling in the scrotum.
- Pain in the abdomen and groin.
- Pain in the testes.
- Shrinking of testicles
The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. The possible causes, however, are:
- Undescended testicle.
- Family history.
- Abnormal testicle development.
- HIV infection.
- Exposure to harmful chemicals.
Testicular cancer is diagnosed by:
- Physical examination: The doctor will assess your medical history and current illnesses. Furthermore, you will also be physically examined for swelling, lumps, or tenderness in the area.
- Ultrasound: An ultrasound will check the swelling in the testicles.
- Blood test: A blood test will be performed to check for specific levels of tumour markers such as human chorionic gonadotropin, lactate dehydrogenase and alpha-fetoprotein in the blood. High levels of these markers may indicate testicular cancer.
- Imaging tests: Various imaging tests such as CT scans, and MRIs will be performed to gauge the size, location, and stage of the tumour.
Unlike other cancers, a biopsy for testicular cancer is not recommended as it may increase the risk of cancer spreading to surrounding tissues.
The treatment strategy for prostate cancer depends on the stage and type of cancer, age, and overall health of the patient. Surgery is usually the mainstay of the treatment. It may be combined with chemotherapy and radiation therapy for better outcomes.
- Surgery: The doctor will either remove cancer affected testicle or remove the testicle along with surrounding lymph nodes to prevent the cancer from spreading.
- Radiation therapy: High energy X-rays will be used to destroy cancer cells.
- Chemotherapy: High doses of anti-cancer drugs will be administered to destroy cancer cells. In some cases, chemotherapy is combined with radiation therapy to remove cells from the body.